Factors Affecting Migration and Solutions to Rural-Urban Migration, Especially to Developing Nations
Migration is the movement of people from one geographical area to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement. There must be a reason or reasons of migration-either something is chasing the individuals away from their present location or there is an attraction to where they are going to. What are these influencing factors?
1. Natural disasters: The occurrence of Natural disasters like floods, famines, drought, earthquakes etc, could make people to migrate out of place to another.
2. Physical conditions: The physical conditions of a place such as climate, soils, relief may also be responsible for the migration of people, especially when such conditions are unfavorable.
3. Insecurity: Fear of insecurity arising from war, political instability etc, could make people migrate.
4. Differences in economic opportunities: As a result of these, people tend to migrate to where there are more economic opportunities like jobs and business transactions.
5. Change in status: Changes in status, eg, high level of education and wealth, could make people to migrate, eg, from rural to urban centers.
6. Differences in social amenities: Owing to difference in the availability of water, roads, electricity etc. people tend to move to where these amenities are present.
Migration has great advantages as it reduces population pressure on agricultural land at the source region; reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region; supplies migrant labor at the receiving region; ensures the flow of capital to the receiving region; leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region; boosts markets at the receiving region and promotes cultural integration eg, inter-marriage at the receiving region. On the other hand, it could be disadvantageous as it breeds social vices like crime and drug dealing in the receiving region; increases high cost of living at the receiving region; leads to pressure on social amenities at the receiving region; leads to the loss of able-bodied men and youth at the source region; leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region; leads to decline in production at the source region and it leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region.
Solutions to rural-Urban migrations
One of the major forms of migration that tends to create problems in all developing countries is that of rural-Urban migration. Since we recognize that this form of migration is a major problem, solutions have to be provided in order to prevent the occurrence of over population at the receiving regions. The solutions to the problems of rural-Urban migration include:
1. Provision of social amenities: The provision of social amenities such as water, electricity, cinemas, roads and telephones in rural areas will go a long way in reducing the rate at which youth move to Urban areas.
2. Transportation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture: This will enable the youth to engage in agriculture as the system will make farming interesting.
3. Establishment of Industries: The establishment of industries, projects and businesses that will absorb the rural working population and reverse labor movement will go a long way in reducing rural-urban drift.
4. Establishment of educational institutions: The establishment of colleges and other institutions of higher learning in rural areas will also help to reduce movement to urban centers.
5. Establishment of corporate branches: Government departments, business firms and financial institutions should be encouraged to establish their branches in rural areas.
6. provision of recreation facilities: If recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinema houses, amusement parks, etc are made available in rural areas, this will reduce the propensity of the youths moving to Urban areas.
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